Individuals align their own knowledge, attitudes, and skills with group efforts. Individuals make sense of and prepare their roles in collaborative efforts.
Participants in the collaborative process agree on and work with the group’s communication expectations, time lines, processes, and tools. They exchange ideas to find shared purpose and coherence with the plans and/or tactics needed to coordinate their efforts.
Participants exchange work for constructive mutual critique and to incorporate others’ perspectives. Participants evaluate which elements of each partner’s work should be included in the deliverables, and how they will be integrated into the whole.
Participants work to each complete a component of the project. Elements are combined into a collective final product, or the process moves to another level of collaboration.
Participants complete stages of the work, building on each other’s contributions through a series of progressive steps. All are combined into a collective final product, or the process moves to another level of collaboration.
Participants synthesize their ideas to plan, organize, and complete the creation of a product that melds all contributions into a collective final product.
Salmons, J. (2019). Collaborating in a connected world, in Learning to Collaborate, Collaborating to Learn, (pp. 3-23). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.