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Instructional Design & Support

Dr. Adrien-Maxence Hespel and Dr. Kryssa Johnson

Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine


 “Use of three-dimensional printed carpus models for teaching veterinary students”


It is vital that veterinary students have a solid foundation of normal gross and radiographic anatomy prior to being taught pathologic radiographic changes, so that they may be able to diagnose abnormalities. Radiographic anatomy is especially challenging as it creates an increase in the cognitive load of students who are expected to learn a three-dimensional (3D) structure and then use visuospatial skills to understand its appearance as two-dimensional radiographic projections. The focus of this project is to introduce the use of a novel individual color-coded 3D printed equine carpus to students in the classroom as a hands-on learning aid and investigate the effectiveness of this model in improving their understanding and retention of normal equine carpus radiographic anatomy.